GLOSSARY

abaxial - that surface of any structure which is remote or turned away from the axis.

adaxial - that surface of any structure which is turned toward axis.

agglutinated - fixed together as if with glue.

allantoid - slightly curved with rounded ends, sausage-like in form.

anamorph - the asexual (imperfect) form of a fungus.

apiculate - having an apiculus (short projection at one end by which it was fixed to the sterigma).

basidiospore - spore produced on basidium.

basidium - the organ of basidiomycetes from which usually basidiospores are produced.

bifurcate - of branching when forming a fork by the equal or near equal growth of parent and lateral branch.

bullate - having bubble-like or blister-like swellings; having a rounded projection at the centre.

capillitium - sterile, thread-like fungal elements between the spores.

columella - a central axis within a sorus (usually of fungal or host origin).

conidiophore - a fertile hypha on which conidia are produced.

conidium - a specialised, non-motile, asexual spore.

cuneiform - thinner at one end than the other, wedge or axe-blade shaped.

dikaryon - a cell having two genetically distinct haploid nuclei.

disjunctor - a connective cell or projection.

dolipore septum - a septum which flares out in the middle to form a structure like a barrel with open ends.

echinulate - (of spores) having sharply pointed spines.

emend. - used in citation when an author has changed the circumscription of a taxon but has not excluded its type.

epiphyllum - upper, adaxial side of a leaf.

foveolate - delicately pitted, dimpled.

fusiform - spindle-like, narrowing toward the ends.

guttiform - having tear-like drops.

haustorium - an outgrowth of a hypha which serves to draw food from a host cell.

holobasidium - a whole, aseptate basidium.

homothallism - the condition in which sexual reproduction can occur without the interaction of two differing thalli.

hypha - one of the filaments of a mycelium.

hypophyllum - under, abaxial side of a leaf.

karyogamy - union and interchange of nuclear material.

lacrimiform - like a tear drop.

muri - wall (used for the wall of meshes of spore ornamentation).

mycelium - a mass of hyphae, the thallus of a fungus.

operculate - cap or lid-like covering.

parenchyma - plant tissue of parenchymatous cells.

peridium - outer covering of a sorus.

phragmobasidium - a septate basidium.

phylogeny - (history of) evolution of animal or plant type.

polycystic - having many, bladder-like structures.

pulverulent - powdery, with a powder-like covering.

punctate - marked with very small spots.

pyriform - pear-like in form.

reticulate - like a net.

retraction septum - a cell wall formed when the cytoplasm is moving from one part of the fungus to another.

saprobic - living on dead or decaying organic matter.

septal pore - the opening on a septal wall between two cells.

serrulate - delicately toothed.

sorus - a fruiting structure or the place where the spores are produced.

spore ball - an ephemeral or permanent agglomeration of spores with or without other fungal elements.

sterigma - an extension of the basidium on which basidiospores are produced.

stroma - a mass of vegetative hyphae.

taxon - a taxonomic group of any rank.

teleomorph - the sexual (perfect) form of a fungus.

teliospore - a basidium-bearing organ.

tuberculate - having small wart like processes.

type - the specimen on which is was described and to which its name is perfectly attached.

holotype - is the (one) specimen on which the species was described.

isotype - a duplicate of a holotype.

lectotype - a type designated later from the syntypes.

neotype - the specimen selected as type when all original material is missing.

paratype - any specimen other than the holotype on which the first description is based.

syntypes - specimens on which the orignal description is based when no holotype was named.

topotype - a specimen from the same locality as the type (of that species, collected later).

unispecific genus - a genus which includes only a single genus.

ventricose - swelling out in the middle or at one side.

verrucose - having small rounded processes or 'warts'.

verruculose - delicately verrucose.