Glossary

abaxial - (of leaf surface) lower surface; surface facing away from the stem

adaxial- (of leaf surface) upper surface; surface facing the stem

ampulliform – flask-like in form

antheridium – the male gametangium

aseptate – having no cross walls

axoneme – the main core of a flagellum

chlorotic - yellow

conidium - a specialised, non-motile asexual spore

conidiophore - a simple or branched hypha bearing or consisting of cells from which conidia are produced

deciduous (of spores) – falling away at maturity

dichotomous – branching, frequently successive, into two more or less equal arms

ellipsoidal – elliptical in optical section

endosporium – the inner wall of a spore

episporium – the thick fundamental layer of a wall which determines the shape of the spore

exosporium – a layer of the wall which is derived from the episporium, but chemically distinct and frequently responsible for the ornamentation

flagellum (of zoospores) - the cylindrical extension of a eukaryotic cell, bounded by a plasma membrane and containing an axoneme

flagellate – having flagella gamete – naked uninucleate haploid cell with the sole function of fusing with another gamete to produce a zygote

germ tube – a germination hyphae which is formed by a germinating spore

globose - spherical

haustorium – a special hyphal branch, especially within a living cell of the host, for absorption of food

hyaline - transparent or nearly so; translucent

hypha - one of the filaments of a mycelium

lageniform – swollen at the base, narrowed at the top

lobate - lobed

luteus - yellow

mycelium - a mass of hyphae; the thallus of a fungus

obconical – inversely conical

obovoid - inversely ovoid

oogonium – uninucleate or coenocytic cell producing female gametes

oospore (of oomycetes) – the resting spore from a fertilised oosphere: a like structure produced by parthenogenesis

operculum – a cover or lid

ovoid - (=ovate) like a hen’s egg with a narrower end at the top

papilla - a small rounded process

papillate - having a papilla

pedicel – a small stalk

polyangular – having multiple flat sides

pore - a small opening

scabrid – rough, with delicate and irregular projections

septum - a cell wall or partition

septate - having a septum

spherical - globose

sporangium – an organ enclosing endogenously generated spores, the walls of the spores not being derived from the supporting or containing structures

sporangiophore – thallus element subtending one or more sporangia

sporangiospore – walled spore in a sporangium

spore - a reproductive structure produced during or as a result of a sexual or asexual reproductive process

stomate - a microscopic opening or pore in the epidermis of leaves and young stems

subglobose - not quite spherical

sympodial (of conidiogenous cells) – characterised by continued growth, after the main axis has produced a terminal spore, by the development of a succession of apices each of which originates below and to one side of the previous apex

systemic (of a parasite) - spreading through the host

thallus – vegetative body of a thallophyte

vacuole – a membrane-bound organelle filled with water containing inorganic and organic molecules including enzymes in solution in a cell

vesicle – bladder-like sac

zoospore – a motile sporangiospore, one having flagella